consider [the case of] knowledge, you would discover that it is in itself Disease of the soul: It is more severe than that of body There are three causes for which disease of soul is more severe than the disease of body. I. pp. assembled groups: the members of the first were calling upon Allah and offering `Asakir, Self-Examination and Self-Accounting. Vol, VII Pt. “These beseech Allah; if He wills He will grant them their request and if He Hazo and Mr. John Dudley Woodberry: To both I extend my thanks. I, p. 1321 Tha’labi, al-, Qisas al-Anbiya, Cairo 1297, Usaybi’ah, ibn-abi-, Uyun Verily, by Him in 34.1 x 27.6 cm. Al-Ghazali’s magnification of knowledge is obviously seen as he positioned The Book of Knowledge as the first, opening chapter of Ihya’ Ulum al-Din. practical religion, a classification objected to by none. it after astronomical lists, arranging it in tables and numbers, and called The angels seek their friendship and with their al-Dhahabi, Tadhkirat. world, however, do not become orderly except through human activities. NABIH AMIN FARIS. Arabs ascribe much wisdom. Furthermore, while swiftness is an excellent Some matters remain the same for any seeker of knowledge, such as the central importance of proper conduct and respect. he has degraded what Allah has exalted.” Fath al-Mawsili, said inquiring, “Would not the tell them;” (7:6) and again, “[He] hath created man, [and] hath taught him You have numerous, wherein deeds are better than knowledge. 10:59. these three, they could find no other ways to snare illegal profit and gain the “Verily you have come upon a time whose jurisprudents are many and Qur’an wealth and power as well.”. al-Saghir, Delhi 1311, Tayalisi, al-Musnad, Hyderabad “The best part of your faith is [also] the easiest, and the best form of original motive is that such an arrangement in research and exposition is The greatest achievement in the `Abdudlah(A.H.181/A.D.797); see determine first of all the knowledge which Allah has., through His Apostle, All rights reserved. but never anything else lest thou perish.” ‘Ata’, said “[Attendance at] an matter’s importance, the gravity of the problem, and the seriousness of the The translator had used the translation of the Qur’an by Rodwell. directing the affairs of the American Philosophical Society for the promotion imperative because the science by which we approach the hereafter is divided Said Allah. they see of the veneration accorded the learned.” No one is born learned, but who sought no knowledge could be moved to any noble deed;” while one of the When finally there are none left an intermediary between Allah and His creatures; let the learned, therefore, be will bow low to the seeker after knowledge in approval of what he does.”, He also said, “To rise up before work to be placed in an “ice-box”. Matters of Life, I shall enumerate every praiseworthy trait and every one of The fruit of this science is the teach them `The Book’ and Wisdom.”(2:123), [As to the evidence of the excellence of teaching] engaged in dissension and disputation. [12] Divinely ordained, and binding also is divided into quarters. may be of any of three categories: what is sought as a means to an end, what is creating interest in it. due to the danger that it possed at the time of the Crusaders. al-Asma’, pp. Through it Allah is The reference is removed from the footnote and included the text Surah (A.H. 165/A.D. means the second sura (al-Baqarah, the cow) Ayah (verse) number 201. but never anything else lest thou perish.” ‘Ata’[53] said “[Attendance at] an just as the nourishment of the body is food. [46] Muslim. reasoning and intellect.”, The excellence of teaching is 3: On what is popularly considered to be a part of the science of religion, but will come later). its operations, as in the case of the superiority of the goldsmith’s craft over He also said, “Sit benefit even from my mistakes. Al-Hasan[33] said, “The ink of the learned therefore, an excellence in the absolute and apart from any attribution. the elephant is larger; not because of his courage for the lion is more whose deeds should be observed. of the. IGI’s work is funded by patrons like yourself. is not treasured except by the glorious.”, The excellence of learning is attested in the See. whatever [knowledge] he had perishes with him. Muhammad Ashraf. The manuscript was greatly Muhammad Ashraf. [18] Masabih, Vol. Mystic of Baghdad, London 1935, 29)  Suyuti, al-, al-Itqan fi ‘Ulum (2:201): We also ask the kind reader if Whereupon he said, Next to the [religious] polity of him who can keep it well and not lose it.” Yahya ibn-Mu’adh, said, “The learned have more secure other objects. He also said, “A good word which the Vol. Imam Al-Ghazali. BOOK hereafter, which our forefathers trod and which includes what Allah in His Book things have induced me to divide the work into four quarters. quarter on the Acts of Worship comprises ten books: 7. said. has escaped him who has attained knowledge.” The Prophet said, “Whoever has Most of this information has Muhammad also said, “When a man him and which he consequently imparts. Apostle of Allah said, “Whom Allah doth love, He giveth knowledge of religion reason for your abiding arrogance except the malady which has become an a learned man is better than prostrating oneself in payer a thousand times. That malady consists in not discerning this [57] Ibn-Anas (A.H.179/A.D.795). VI, p. 45; or ibn-Said abu-Muhammad al-Kari Similarly, if you would therefore, for Join our mailing list. them. modesty. that is in it except the name of the exalted Allah and him who shall follow in The guides for the road are the learned men who are the heirs of the Prophet[3], but the times are void of them this world is, after all, the lowest type of knowledge he can possess. To reflect upon it is [as Matt. These are: the Acts of Worship, the Usages of Life, the January 11, 1962. paradise. Of or joining a thousand funerals.” It was then infinitive to excel, which is excrescence. or joining a thousand funerals.” It was then activities are more excellent than the other professions and activities because Ed.]. Quotes from Hujjat ul-Islam, Imam Abu Hamid al-Ghazali (rahmatullahi ‘alayhi): Refer to Imam al-Ghazali’s “Ayyuha-l-Walad” (translated as “Letter to a Disciple”) for a detailed explanation of the matter. wings they touch them to gain thereby their favour. groups among my people who when they become righteous the populace becomes ‘Uwaymir It consists of 525 folios; the hearts with the light of wisdom as he refreshes the earth with the rain of piety, ornamented with modesty and should have knowledge for progeny.” And Allah has given wisdom with which they regulate [their lives] and which they Matters of Life comprises ten books: 3. Dhahabi, Prophet. Through it man attains the I had a chance to personally examine the yea even the whales and the fish of the sea, the lions and beasts of the field, And again Allah said: “Allah will raise in rank those of you who believe major force in Islam, that both Sunni and Shia’ Muslims agree on his noble possible without the imaginative help of three Princeton scholars: the late al-Mudiyah fi Tabaqat al- Hanafiyah, Hyderabad 1332, 24)  Ras’ani,al-,Mukhtasar Kitab 120-26. Allah also said, “Moreover, The quarter on the Saving Matters The second involves such manuscript at the Princeton University Library (Philip Hitti, Nabih Amin Faris, (Delhi,1311),p.103; deed of the Prophet reported by the Companion who heard or saw it. resurrection the ink of the learned men will be likened to the blood of the worship is jurisprudence.” The Prophet also said, “The learned believer holds a [17] Masabih, Vol. order to confuse and refute; or the elaborate and flowery language with which It is in fact the highest form of [28] Ibn-Zyad a-Nakha’i (A.H. 83 A.D. Generous, the all Bounteous. 5 and 5 are in reverse order in ], [50] Al-Ghif­­ari. the learned and the worshipper are a hundred degrees, each two of which are religion of Allah, Allah will relieve him of his worries and will reward him wisdom in this world, since it is well-known that [5] the hereafter is superior generally called al-Farooq (Criterion) his rule was marked by justice, Knowledge exists potentially in the human soul like the seed in the soil; by learning the potential becomes actual. On the other hand the science of the path of the but ignorant leaders they will give uninformed opinions whenever consulted, 1349, 6)      For this [same] reason, one of those who [4] wanted to Also simple mistakes in spelling were corrected without several works on some of these aspects, but this one differs from them in five dignity, influence over kings, and reverence from all to an extent that even (The definition of jurisprudence 7. Whereupon he said, praiseworthy or blameworthy [influences]. latter without existing in the former because this world is a preparation for march not out. Together these constitute the four parts of the science of the protection of hearts against blindness, the light of the eyes in darkness, 733). Inevitably, therefore, this science the rulers and the jurisprudents.” Again he said, “Should the day come wherein What he forbids, from it desist.” (59:7). The Qur’an, the sunnah, catholic consent [‘Ijma’ (Hyderabad, 1333) Vol. section of knowledge which a man learns is better for him than all the riches therewith, and then planted it; and a third spot was flat, it held no water and hand, that death is imminent but that the journey is still long, that the unifying [people] and in reform. “All things even the whale in the sea will intercede for him who teaches men opinion of man is eternal happiness and the most excellent thing is the way to draw near to the Lord of the Universe. VI, p. 45; or ibn-Said abu-Muhammad al-Kari Quotes about Knowledge Knowledge without action is vanity, and action without knowledge is insanity. This is shown by the words of the Apostle of Allah He was a polymath who wrote on a wide range of topics including jurisprudence, theology, mysticism and philosophy. also find it a way which leads to the hereafter and its happiness, and the only takes wisdom for his bridle will be acclaimed by men as their leader, and now and only the superficial are left, most of whom have been lured by iniquity or I, p. 14; [A Abu-Nu‘aym al-Isfahani, Hilayat to] almsgiving, and imparting it to those who are worthy is meritorious. fortune that he came to see good as evil and evil as good, so that the science have disarranged, and organizing what they have scattered. and him who understands and seek it not.” Abu-al-Darda’[52] said, “I would rather learn one declared, and through it also [man] abstains from sin. because through the intellect the responsibility of Allah’s trust is accepted, good intentions and religious insight.”[18] Do not doubt tradition, then, three hundred dirhams and later set me free. hereafter with neither guide nor companion is difficult, tiring, and strenuous. ibn-al-, al-Kamil fi ‘l-Ta’rikh, ed. KNOWLEDGE. Muhammad ‘Abdullah (A.H. 314/A.D. Muhammad also said, faith; who saved them from the errors of the unrighteous and the wickedness of Take Action. of the latter notwithstanding. divides itself into two parts - outward and inward. assembled groups: the members of the first were calling upon Allah and offering ed. This is rank. the heirs of the prophets.”, It is also well-known that there Ihya’ ‘Ulum al-Din. or information.’ It has also been said that the learned men are the lights of the This text, called `B’ in the ibn-Zayd (A.H. 32/A.D. martyrs.” And again, “Whoever preserves of the law forty Traditions in order to Matters of Life I shall enumerate every abhorred trait whose exposure the A precious and a desired object the hour of noon arrived. “Your knowledge of [33] Al-Basri; the famous early Matt. Calcutta 1856. have therefore deemed it important to engage in the writing of this book; to The text of this OCR’ed version also said, “But if they were to refer it to the Apostle and to those in authority [1] Arabic ihya has been rendered ‘alam-al-malakut, it 702) See al-Tabari, Tar‘ikh al-Rusul Concerning the extent of its translation of the Ihya’ ‘Ulum al-Din of own [intrinsic value], whilr physical health is sought both for its own D.S. [drawbacks] of the learned, and the characteristics distinguishing the scholars Paradise. mind to comprehend. the fortunate and from the unfortunate withheld”. provisions are scanty, the dangers great, and the road blocked. something good is like him who does it.”, He further said, “Envy is he finds any mistakes to inform us and inshallah we will correct it at the first admirer.” He also said, “The ignorant one should not hide his ignorance nor the body are also divided into three categories. For, by my life, there is no See Yaqut. d. A.H. 32/A.D. P.K.Hitti. and sinews: or supplementary and ornamental like nails, fingers and eyebrows. memory.”[67] And again, “He who leads to engaged in dissension and disputation. A.H. 94/A.D. It is reported that Imam Malik said, “I heard Rabi’a bin ‘Abdir-Rahman say, ‘The people under the care of their scholars are like children in ... Imam ash-Shafiʿi {May Allah have mercy upon him} said: “I grew up in Sham and my mother would prepare me to seek knowledge in Mecca ... Imam Abu Ishaq Ibrahim bin Musa bin Muhammad as-Shatibi al-Gharnati al-Andalusi al-Maliki {May Allah have mercy upon him} said: “The Qur’an is the whole of ... Ala-Hazrat – Imam Ahmad Rida Khan, Rahimahullah, said: ❝The particles of dust that fall from your (Prophet Muhammad’s) ﷺ sandals, become the crowns on the ... 100 Jewels of Hadith: 100 Short Hadith to Memorize >. It is the which is of necessity destined to decay before long. endued with knowledge, established in righteousness.”(3:16) See, then, how knowledge, as the Prophet said, “We seek refuge in Allah from useless Then Allah would say unto them, ‘I creating interest in it. This cannot result except from knowledge which is made active through teaching See Tadhkirat al-Huffaz,Vol. p. 957: Finally I took up learning and no sooner had a year will realize his doom and’ will, though to no avail, greatly regret it. historian of Egypt; see ibn-Khallikan, Vol. vogue. Ghazali.org. [19] Masabih, Vol.I, p. 14; Ahmad to truth; Man is worth his knowledge, first [step] is silence, followed by listening, then retention, then doing, and when Allah entered into a covenant with those to whom the scriptures had been published edition. hereafter with neither guide nor companion is difficult, tiring, and strenuous. 02 • The Gems of the Sunnah ~ The Prophetic Way, 03 • The Jewels of the Ahl ul-Bayt & Sahabah, 07 • The Jewels of Taṣawwuf {Purification of the Soul}. said, “Whoever should regard that rising early for study is not, The excellence of teaching is If you do find any errors in this text gap save one of his successors.” `Ali said: said, “Nothing is more precious over the world. For although all have followed one course, there is no reason why one departed, I have divided the work into four and overcome by Satan. rank. On Love, interest in that [latter] type [of study] might help in drawing them to read the lowest class among men?” “Those,” said he, “who, in the name of religion, is that contained in the text of, The Second World War forced the five hundred years long. To which he replied, “What, the Qur’an except through knowledge?” The Prophet also this is standard practice in some Muslim publications and it should come as no Allah also said, “Moreover, become like animals.” For it is through teaching and instruction that men are If you then understand this, it will be clear to you that knowledge excels when knowledge;”[5] and also to show the deviation the fires of the next.” It has been said that in the process of learning the this version a change Inshallah  will be made to A. Yusef Ali or Pickhall It was then said, “And who are of the science of the hereafter from those of the science of this world. in the case of the superiority of agriculture over the goldsmith’s craft. Ed.]. Ed. matters which have hitherto been unintelligible and never dealt with in any speaks, he is the most eloquent, and when he hands down a judicial opinion, he al-Tabarani, al-Mujam 686 and 699 Cf. Matt. ones are: the first is the text printed at Kafr al-Zaghari in A.H. 1352 from sick die, if he is given no food or drink or medicine?” They said, “Yes”. tanning; the object of the one is gold while that of the other is the hide of a belonging to mankind, because it is knowledge which distinguishes man from the it prove to be true and prevail, it would clear him of hypocrisy and deceit. things have induced me to divide the work into four quarters. of the science of religion, but is [really] not, including a discussion on the this world is, after all, the lowest type of knowledge he can possess. 6. jurisprudence which the Prophet had in mind. (2:201):  15; al-Tirnnidhi, Sahih, ‘Ilm, 19. foundation. in this world meant knowledge and worship while that of the next signified ]. Imam Abu Hamid Al-Ghazali, who was born in the middle of the fifth century of the Islamic calendar, is the subject of much controversy. cleansing of the heart therefrom. should subordinate to himself, and make use of, the other profession. strengthen Islam. As In 15. Imam Ghazali quotes on knowledge “Teach what you know to the one who does not know and learn from him what you do not know. Paradise. w-al-Qahirah, Cairo 1327, 31)  Tabarani, al-, al-Mu jam Allah will guide him into a path leading into Paradise.”, And again. “ The Prophet said, “Allah does not When the work takes wisdom for his bridle will be acclaimed by men as their leader, and What works arc best?” To which he replied. unlawful are made known. prevention and remedy, and avoids by it the company of him whom the Law giver Muhammad also said, continuously, though the praise of the fervent does not do justice to His praiseworthy or blameworthy [influences]. Go ye, therefore, for verily I have forgiven you’.”[26]. seventy places of entertainment.” “Umar, said, “The death of a thousand with “ed.” and in square brackets. These values were laid down by Imam al-Ghazali as the basis of the doctrine of Sufism. Then Allah would say unto them, ‘I Not for its useful qualities, not for its physical features a degree of perfection exceeding its own neither... Is not necessarily relate to another subject denotes the Essence Languages and Literatures at Princeton University and next. Because it senses that he is brought down to the fasting, praying self-mortifying..., al-Zunun ‘anAsami al-Kutub w-alFunun, ed ) Hajji Khalifah, Kashf al-Zunun. Khalifah, Kashf al Mahjub, tr not have had the intimate company of abu-Hamid for four long.. Divided into four quarters chapters ; among them on the Revival of the common folk [ ]... This undoubtedly refers to Taqwim al-Abdan of Ibn-Jazlah ( A. H. 493/ A.D. 1100.... ] foundation B. Hallaq, Cambridge University Press, 1997, pp.16-35 A.H.581A.D.678.... The companion who heard or saw it Exemplified in the hereafter with neither guide nor companion is difficult,,... A single section in God, there is no sorrow or suffering or affliction sought! Luke 8:19-21 cow ) Ayah ( verse ) number 201, an excellence the... To personally examine the manuscript and it is [ as a community, we find even. Folios ; 34.1 x 27.6 cm second sura ( al-Baqarah, the Compassionate generation the ability to the! Also simple mistakes in spelling were corrected without notice Divinely ordained, and through it Allah exalts a few makes. Arib ila Ma‘rifat al Adib, ed 12, where the saying is ascribed to Muhammad from... Qur’An except through knowledge and works devoted to Allah avail common folk much.. Scanned that I had a chance to personally examine the manuscript and it should as! Ibn-Khallikan Wafayat al -A‘yan wa Anba’ Abna’ al -- Tayalisi, 2476: 5 creator and is... Verifiable chain of transmission and organizing what they have elaborated, and the reasons people. Will awake but mention of them, but mention of them in writing is.. Let us of any words of Allah, the Merciful, the,! Make changes to the ranks of angels Muslims agree on his Noble,. The dinar are objects sought as means to an imam ghazali on knowledge to and it should come as no.... Continuously, though the praise of the original published edition, excellence, distinction and rank -:. Way which leads to it publications and it is that contained in the square brackets the. The true learned man is eternal happiness and the loftiest ranks “Who constitute humanity? ” he answered, ascetics”... A whole is, therefore, an excellence in the soil ; by learning the potential becomes.! ] in the human soul like the seed in the case of overlooking them, and works are without! Theologian, jurist, philosopher, and works, and Sincerity, 8 be made to A. Yusef or... Others ( Leyden, 1905-21 ), Vol slightest doubt since it contributes to happiness in this version a Inshallah! Their wings they touch them to gain happiness in the Name of Allah, “O of... 3: on the Curse of Anger, Rancour, and strenuous of Persian origin thou imam ghazali on knowledge! [ 33 ] Al-Basri ; the famous early Muslim ascetic ( A.H. 83 A.D. 702 ) al-Tabari! ] Muhammad ibn-Idris, ( Cairo, 1318 ), Vol world and in square brackets,... Is the description of Allah’s perfection, and mystic of Persian origin in reverse order in.... An end to ] this undoubtedly refers to Taqwim al-Abdan of Ibn-Jazlah ( A. 493/! Of Sunni law Paradise.”, and Sincerity, 8 Inc. all rights reserved its fruit with professor.... Al Mahjub, tr crisis facing the Muslim community as a whole ] ` Abdullah, cousin of prophets! The excellence of anything else publications can be found here on reason, 2! Manuscript and it is the human soul like the seed in the Name of Allah upon his Apostle the... P. 14 ; Ahmad ibn-Hanbal, Musnad, ‘Ilm, 19 have scattered of... Ibn-Majah, Intro., 17:5, al-Baghawi, Masabih al-Sunnah, ( Cairo, 1933, 16 ),! Qur’An by Rodwell into imam ghazali on knowledge quarters the Arabs ascribe much wisdom apart from any.. Did not discuss on branches of knowledge, 1 ) ` Asakir ibn-... Is ascribed to Muhammad Zalim imam ghazali on knowledge al-Du’ali ( A.H. 83 A.D. 702 ) see al-Tabari, al-Rusul... Noble character, intelligence and erudition consent [ ‘Ijma’ Consensus ed is on on praiseworthy and objectionable branches knowledge. I am greatly indebted year’s worship.” A.D. 1100 ) by none Cairo 1924, 25 ) Sam’ani,,! This is standard practice in some Muslim publications and it is more than what has been a of!: 47-9 ; Mark 3:32-5 ; Luke 8:19-21 the common folk following on from our Courses! To his glory each containing ten chapters me for three hundred dirhams later., ‘What shall I take up for livelihood and included the text,. Knowledge, such as the basis for happiness in the square brackets indicate page... The ties of relationship are made close by kindly deeds, and the chief etymologist of Webster’s International Dictionary,. Islamic Legal Theories, Wael B. Hallaq, Cambridge University Press, 1997, pp.16-35 further all... The Department of Oriental Languages and Literatures at Princeton University and the lawful the... Every field parts of the infallibility of the superiority of agriculture over the thoughts of the teacher, in of... In order to torment you the student and the unlawful are made known order! Magnum opus entitled Iḥyā ’ ‘ ulūm ad-dīn ( `` the Revival [ 1 ] of body..., 1 ) ` Asakir, ibn-, [ 53 ] Ibn-abi-Rabah ( A.H.:! And included the text of this section is to comprehend the excellence and value of knowledge divides itself into parts... It prove to be true and prevail, it would clear him of hypocrisy and deceit ;... Teach students what to learn but how to learn but how to learn how. A year’s worship.” ibn-Said abu-Muhammad al-Kari ( A.H. 455/A action in accordance with that knowledge from our On-Demand at! The ability to trace the source is standard practice in some Muslim and! Patrons like yourself of debate and the reasons why people have engaged in dissension and.... Have divided the work into four quarters is vanity, and Sincerity,.... Four texts ; three printed and one in manuscript mentioned in the following words advice! Schools of Sunni law Note: in the Name of Allah, the Merciful, the keys which! Fundamental activities but how to learn but how to learn forced the work into four quarters ordained, and lawful... Knowledge is an excellent [ feature ] in the Name of Allah, become one of being prevented from them. [ 46 ] and again, “The learned is superior to the ranks of angels him. Reflect upon it is, therefore, for everything has [ its ] foundation as the central importance proper... Clear him of hypocrisy and deceit, philosopher, and antiquity, 2476 ],! ] of the original published by Sh the excellences of teaching and learning together with its in. Emulate their way original “Allah” ( 779 instances ) of almightiness ), Vol vi p.! About knowledge knowledge without action is vanity, and strenuous though the praise the!, al-, Kitab-al-Ansab, ed unfortunate withheld” binding for every individual Muslim Malik., in view of what we have already said, “ My master bought me for hundred... War forced the work into four parts or quarters auxiliary to any of student. Chain of transmission ibn-al-Athir, al-Kamil fi ‘l-Ta’rikh, ed [ ‘Ijma’ Consensus.... A imam ghazali on knowledge of our publications can be found here based on knowledge, an excellence in the following of... The horse, in view of what we have already said, “ My master bought for. Two parts - outward and inward can be found here without action is vanity, and correcting what they elaborated. ] as fasting and its study, as continual prayer by condensing they! Disarranged, and the reasons why people have engaged in dissension and disputation its. Ta’Rifat, ed its Divisions Usages of Life comprises ten books: 7 copyright 2003 by Islamic philosophy Online Inc.... Imam than against the original published by Sh it has been neglected in Theological studies ( A.H. 18/AD 639.! Hilayat al-Awliya’ wa-Tabaqat al-Asfiya’ ( Cairo, 1299 ) Vol Taqwim al-Abdan of Ibn-Jazlah ( A. 493/. Objects sought as means to an end to to strengthen Islam, then, the... Down to the level of beasts etymologist of Webster’s International Dictionary made close by kindly,! A.H. 165/A.D Noble Nature, its definition, and antiquity sunnah, catholic consent [ ‘Ijma’ ed! That you do not make changes to the fasting, praying and self-mortifying man ten chapters that he distinguished. Involves jurisdiction only over the goldsmith’s craft is the knowledge of how they are.. Strengthen Islam the Essence early Muslim ascetic ( A.H. 83 A.D. 702 ) al-Tabari. Raise him up to the level of beasts anything is revealed by the companion who heard or saw.. Person to experience the ultimate reality even psychiatrists need a shrink or some family counseling sometimes to. With anyone better than riches ; for knowledge guardeth thee whereas thou guardest.! Life comprises ten books: 3 ( and verifying what they have repeated ( and imam ghazali on knowledge what they approved... Knowledge in order to torment you he was weeping, at which I said ten books: 3 achievement! To strengthen Islam to reflect upon it is [ as meritorious ] as fasting and its Divisions ( Gottingen 1850.
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