A writing tip on when to use commas with such as. In this sentence, the logic is not clear. Viewed 9k times -1. This is when if you don’t use the comma, the meaning of the sentence changes. Although the phrase “it was snowing” can stand as an independent sentence, in this case, it acts as a noun: it is a statement of a fact. Notice here that there is no longer a comparison, the whole phrase is adverbial, applied to complicated. If the meaning is clear even without a comma, you can omit it, but you should use a comma whenever the first reading can result in misunderstanding. The megaproject went billions of dollars over budget as the government continued to claim it was successful. That comma is optional. (The clouds are as fluffy as cotton.) Nichole did this, well. In this case, a comma would help clarify. Don’t switch back and forth in the same document between using the Oxford comma and not using it. In this usage, it’s an adverb. I drove the car home as it was snowing. However, as a conjunction, because may or may not take a comma. You cannot use the punctuation rules of your native language when you write in English – you must use English rules. Because can function either as a conjunction or as an adverb, but only one of them needs a comma. (There are a few exceptions that require you to use the Oxford comma in a list, but they are pretty rare. Did Kerry’s inebriation force me to drive home from the party? In the second sentence, as is used as a logical connector so it’s a conjunction. Do you know the 8 parts of speech? This means we have to look at the function of because in the sentence. There are two schools of thought on how best to lighten the punctuation of such a sentence. Like because, as can be used as a conjunction or as an adverb. Just as there is a time to use a comma before conjunctions, there is also a time for using a comma after conjunctions. Today, such a sentence is considered over-punctuated. (the same parts of speech :adjectives) She glanced, smiled and bowed. When each element separated by or is just one or two words, the reader will have little trouble mentally sorting things out with whichever style you choose.. That said, advocates of the Oxford comma do have a strong argument when it comes to the clarity. Commas before as can be more tricky. But what if the logic is less clear? Introductory bits (small-medium-large) Setting off introductory words, phrases, or clauses with a … Commas before as can be more tricky. It’s an adverb because it relates to the state-of-being verb. ; Don’t place a comma before which when which is part of a prepositional phrase. In this situation, each clause is equal in weight, and neither clause is dependent on the other to make sense. Viewed 2k times 0. Main Takeaways: Place a comma before which when which precedes a nonrestrictive clause. But what about a longer, more convoluted sentence? Do not place a comma before numbered suffixes: John D. Rockefeller IV Place a comma before Jr. and Sr.: Dale Earnhardt, Jr. Active 5 years ago. Different languages have different rules about how to use commas. You can safely delete it if you want without losing the context. Use a pair of commas in the middle of a sentence to set off clauses, phrases, and words that are not … I was promoted because of my competence. Some people say to always use it and other people say to only use it when leaving it out would cause confusion. The 8 parts of speech are definitions of how a word is used in a sentence. He teaches high school and offers editing services as time is available. The sun is shining brightly, as she said it would. Peter J. Francis is owner and operator of HyperGraphix Publishing Services (HGPublishing.com). In the following sentence, would you need a comma before just in case and, if so, why? Commas are used as grammatical markers to help convey meaning in sentences. Let's examine it in more detail. It is just a normal subordinating conjunction. My work background includes conservation work, such as prairie restoration and controlled burns. For some unknown reason, the snow motivated me to drive. The man burned the article, just in case the man was dangerous. So, to determine the usage of the comma with “because,” we must consider if there is a possible logic that is not intended, and use the comma to eliminate any confusion on the part of the reader. How can you tell the difference? Ask Question Asked 3 years, 3 months ago. A conjunction joins clauses or phrases. When because relates to a noun phrase, it’s an adverb. degree from SFU (2005) and a certificate in Special Education from SFU (2011). Notice the difference in the following two sentences. In the following example, the verb is active, but the usage is similar: The construction of the megaproject was as complicated as expected. degree from SFU (2005) and a certificate in Special Education from SFU (2011). Are there any rules to use the comma correctly? Jojo Bizarro on October 03, 2011 9:02 am. Comma before or after however Because you can use however as a synonym for but, it is worth noting this rule. Personally, I like to use a comma before “as” when it is used as a logical connector; however, I learned while researching the answer to this questions, that there is no rule requiring this. The man burned the article just in case the man was dangerous. When because relates to a clause (i.e. We usually know what we want to say, and we believe we have said it. Peter J. Francis is owner and operator of HyperGraphix Publishing Services (HGPublishing.com). There was a time when this sentence would be punctuated exactly this way. I see lots of people leaving out commas where they shouldn’t but always plopping that frivolous comma in before sentence-final “too.” It just looks wrong to me. )This is not true.Commas serve a specific purpose; they exist to divide content by clause, to delineate list items from one another, and to indicate sentence continuation before and … Like because, as can be used as a conjunction or as an adverb. This helps to clarify that Kerry’s inebriation was the motivating factor for me driving. That urban legend is this: “If you want to know where a comma goes, just put it wherever you want a pause in your writing.” (And then say “comma” three times in front of a mirror, etc. You mean that wacky comma is actually a rule!? When “for” is used as a conjunction between two clauses (“for” is the F in FANBOYS) then you need a comma before it. OR . Could you please explain when to use a comma before as and because? So the important part is that it’s me driving, not Kerry. Putting a comma before “that” is a very common mistake: WRONG The claimant’s attorney stated, that his client was unable to attend the hearing.… Thank you. Perhaps Kerry was too drunk to drive in the snow. Note that if the order of the because-clause and the main clause is reversed, we always use a comma, just like for “if”: Active 3 years, 3 months ago. Simultaneous time: The expense of the megaproject, as the government cut taxes, put a strain on the country’s finances. Again, when it is used as an adverb, you don’t use a comma. ... By contrast just as works here and should also work in place of like how anywhere. The modifier such as street, avenue, and road is essential to the meaning of the sentence: it restricts the general term words to a specific type of word. It still doesn’t clarify whether or not I left her at the party. The megaproject went billions of dollars over budget, as the cost of cement was unexpectedly increased. It depends on the logic of the sentence. As an adverb, because is not preceded by a comma. I drove home from the party because Kerry was drunk. Is there a comma before the word well in a sentence, example. No comma after such as. (Notice how I used it as an adverb in the preceding sentence.) I was promoted because I am competent. Do use a comma when “as” can be substituted with “because”. The clause "who live in the same village as us" is just additional information about Sarah's parents. The last example above is a real example from a newspaper. Example: I was arrested because of my inebriation. This is an adverbial use. Here’s an example: I put my socks on because my feet were cold. The comma before a conjunction in a list is known as an an Oxford Comma or a serial comma. Even though the Oxford Comma is named after the Oxford University Press (who still use it), most Brits do not use an Oxford Comma. Using “like how” vs. “just as” after a comma in a comparison. ; Oxford commas are also known as serial or Harvard commas. Free Trial: Grammarly, The World’s Best Grammar Checker. Use commas to offset appositives from the rest of the sentence. Here’s an appositive form: The construction of the megaproject was complicated, as expected. contains subject and verb), then it’s a conjunction. Use a comma after sentence adverbs but skip it after adverbs modifying verbs. )Just be consistent. With shorter introductory phrases / clauses, many grammarians will tell you commas are not necessary: Highest tower in the château. ... an adverb that just happens to come first in the sentence. There is a comma before the conjunction (but), and the nonessential comment (in the end) is set off with a pair of commas. Again, when it is used as an adverb, you don’t use a comma. The comma before such as is correct because the phrase is a nonessential clause. However, we do use a comma for the above when it’s written as an appositive. In the first sentence, as is used as a coordinating adverb. Use commas to separate three or more elements in a series. To put a comma here would imply that the phrase “as softly as feathers” should be applied to the main verb, drove, and not the predicate verb falling. He holds a BA (Honors) degree in English (1987), a B. Ed. For example, take this sentence: In these circumstances it should have a comma before it. Note that such as should not be separated from the list of examples that follows it. Appositives act as synonyms for a … As a result, it should not be set off by commas. Did I drive for no other reason than I was sober? A comma is needed before “so” when it’s acting as a conjunction to bring together two independent clauses. An independent clause is a complete thought with its own subject and predicate. It’s an adverb because it relates to the state-of-being verb. Unfortunately, there is no clear rule. In this case both instances of as are adverbs. Use a Comma After an Introductory Word or Phrase. ; Commas can separate adjectives, offset nonessential phrases, and introduce direct quotations. Both are correct, as commas must be used after every clause, except the one that comes before ‘and’. But a good writer (or a good editor) will recognize when alternative meanings will arise in the minds of readers and craft sentences that are clear and meaningful. Note: Without the word tomorrow, we wouldn’t need a comma between doctor and before—we often don’t use a comma to separate an independent clause from a dependent one when the independent one comes first. The biggest confusion regarding commas stems from a terrible urban legend. ; A nonrestrictive clause is a phrase that adds non-essential information to a sentence without changing the overall meaning. Thread starter SunnyS; Start date Jan 22, 2011 < Previous | Next > S. SunnyS Banned. Obviously, a comma before as in this case would be wrong: The clouds are, as fluffy as cotton. When it’s used as a preposition (e.g., some flowers for my mom) you probably don’t need a comma before it, unless it’s in a list or some other structure that needs commas. He teaches high school and offers editing services as time is available. If you can replace while with as, then it shouldn't have a comma before it. I’m as happy as a clam. Notice that there’s no verb after “because.”. When a word or phrase forms an introduction … Comma before as? Did I drive home because I didn’t want to be around a pickled Kerry? I drove home from the party, because Kerry was drunk. English - US Jan 22, 2011 #1 Brand XXX = The Queen of England because she has been sitting on her throne for ages, just as XXX on their pedestal. Try our grammar quizzes! He holds a BA (Honors) degree in English (1987), a B. Ed. Correct comma replacement depends on whether such as introduces an essential or nonessential clause. In a sentence comparing two related ideas, it strikes me as strange to say _____, like how _____. »  With your permission: using “with” in an opening clause, Could you please explain when to use a comma before, Grammarly, The World’s Best Grammar Checker. Comma is used to separate the same parts of speech unless they are grouped by and: Ex: He was a wise , learned and upright judge. In this case the usage is as a conjunction. Notice the difference in the following two sentences. Remember the 8 parts of speech? It’s an adverb because it relates to why an action happened. In the following example, the verb is active, but the usage is similar: The construction of the megaproject was as complicated as expected. If you use, however, therefore, furthermore, or moreover at the beginning of a sentence, there is always a comma after the adverb. The meaning is clear without a comma. That last comma before the “and” is called a serial comma, Oxford comma, or Harvard comma. Perhaps the alternative driver was not confident of driving in the snow. comma before 'just as' [conjunction]: there for ages, just as XXX on. Consider the longer series of coordinating items in this sentence; within the series itself, there is a phrase with a necessary or. Do not use a comma before “as” when using it in a comparison. Do not use a comma when “as” is used for simultaneous time. (Notice here that “as” follows a verb; only use a comma after a verb for an appositive). Unlike the use of because as an adverb, here the noun phrase contains a verb. In this sentence, there is a clear, logical connection between the main verb—put—and the predicate phrase my feet were cold. ; Commas should be used before and when joining two independent clauses or when compiling a list. In this usage, it’s an adverb. He has over 30 years of professional writing and editing experience. ; Don’t use a comma before which when it’s used to pose an indirect question. Main Takeaways: A comma is a form of punctuation that indicates a pause in a sentence and separates items in a list. Therefore, there should be a comma before "who." The use of comma before the conjunction “as” is quite confusing. (Notice how I used it as an adverb in the preceding sentence.) In a list of three or more elements, … By using a comma, the emphasis is on the main clause, which means “I” as the subject. Therefore, a comma is required before "who.") As a conjunction, “as” is equivalent to “because”. The sentence is correct with or without the comma before and. There are some rare exceptions though, where the ‘Oxford comma’ must be used. If you can replace while with whereas then you should use a comma before it because it is … Ask Question Asked 5 years ago. Two things happened simultaneously. Do not use a comma before “as” when using it in a comparison. An adverb provides information about a verb. In addition, as can be used to make a simile. If the sentence is simple and the logic is clear, then there is no absolute need for a comma before “as.”. I drove carefully through the snowflakes falling as softly as feathers. This is really the most challenging thing for writers. A rational person might assume that I was driving because Kerry was in no state to drive, and they would be quite correct, but as writers, we must not leave room for doubt if we can avoid it. I’m as happy as a clam. The serial comma is the comma before the last “and” in a series: red, white, and blue. Also the words 'just' and 'be' are both superfluous, i.e., unnecessary as they do nothing to add to the meaning of the sentence. He has over 30 years of professional writing and editing experience. In the main text of your written work, use a suffix that is an essential part of the name—like Jr. or a roman numeral—when you cite a person’s name in full. Conjunctions, there is no absolute need for a comma, or Harvard commas not using in! 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